332 

Etiology. Traumatic injuries. The pathogenesis. Sharp active or violent movement beyond the normal range of motion of this joint, causing hyperextension of the capsule, ligaments.

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206 

Etiology. The development of a purulent, sometimes putrid infection, penetrating into the subphrenic space; most often in acute appendicitis, perforation of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, inflammatory processes in the liver and gallbladder, pancreas, spleen or any other abdo

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236 

Etiology. An abscess formed in the tissues under the influence penetrated into them pyogenic bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, less E. coli and other microbes, as well as after the introduction into the tissues of some chemical substances (gasoline, turpentine).

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190 

Diseases of the organs of the abdominal cavity, requiring urgent surgical intervention, summarizes called acute abdomen that does not constitute a diagnosis. This group includes various diseases of the abdominal cavity, leading to peritonitis: appendicitis and other inflamma

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173 

Etiology. Pathological changes of the vessel wall or damage it (the wound gap). The pathogenesis. Stretching the diseased wall under the influence of intra-arterial pressure causes the formation mesechta protrusion or fusiform expansion (true aneurysm). When the wound in t

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203 

Etiology and pathogenesis. The tumor develops from vessels, increases due to newly formed vessels in the primary tumor. Occurs most often in childhood. The nature of the constituents of the tumor vessels angioma is divided into lymphangioma and hemangioma. Lymphangioma formed f

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224 

Etiology. Termination of joint movement develops as a result of injury (bleeding into the joint, injury to joints, intra-articular fractures), acute or chronic inflammatory process (purulent and gonorrhoeae inflammation, tuberculosis joint), as well as during prolonged immobili

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265 

Etiology see acute Appendicitis. The pathogenesis. The spread of the inflammatory process beyond the walls of the vermiform process around appears fibrinous effusion, saipausi surrounding organs (intestinal loops, omentum) in inflammatory conglomerate, separated from the fre

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252 

Etiology. The polymicrobial disease involving Streptococcus, diplostraca, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, diplococci. There anaerobes. The pathogenesis. The transition of the inflammatory process on the process by lymphogenous possible with inflammatory proce

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270 

Etiology see acute Appendicitis. The pathogenesis. There are recurrent, residual, and primary chronic appendicitis. After an acute attack of appendicitis remains a residual phenomenon, the presence in the wall of the rough scar tissue, kinks and narrowing of the lumen, fibro

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492 

Pathological changes in the joint: inflammation, arthritis, osteochondritis, entail the rejection of particles capsules, the host bone and cartilage character. In traumatic injuries with subsequent hemorrhage into the joint occurs the precipitation of fibrin. clots which may re

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202 

The accumulation of free fluid in the abdomen is a symptom of processes that are causing the disorder of the portal circulation (liver cirrhosis, thrombosis of the portal vein, the squeeze of her tumors and other). Thus, all processes that interferes with normal circulation in

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203 

Cessation of gas exchange in the lungs and blood develops mechanical barrier to oxygen in the lungs: foreign body larynx and pharynx, tumors that compress the windpipe, bronchi and larynx, inflammation of the larynx (edema), injury to the larynx and so on, when the lack of oxyg

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196 

Etiology. Compression of the chest when landslides and compression between solid objects (buffers). The pathogenesis. A sudden increase in intrathoracic pressure causes congestion in the vessels of the head, neck and upper chest: rupture of small vessels and multiple hemorrh

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318 

The blockage of sebaceous glands leads to the formation of retention cysts. The cyst usually has a thin white wall and a dense connective tissue capsule. Developing atheroma is more common in middle age on the scalp, face, neck, back, scrotum and in other parts of the skin rich

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246 

Bleeding mechanical (reg гhехin) is a primary violation of the integrity of the vascular wall at the wound, secondary, early - in the first two days and later (after three days) - slide ligatures, inadequate hemostasis, bounce when the pressure increases or purulent fusion of a

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230 

Etiology. Sharp extension of the lower leg (while jumping and squats), sharp rotation of the thigh inward at a fixed tibia or, conversely, rotation of the Shin of the foot outwards at a fixed thigh (players, skiers, boxers). The pathogenesis. Partial break, small tears, more

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310 

Have is influenced by the hormonal function of ovarian hyperplasia of the epithelium (agensy), accompanied by the development of fibrous tissue (fibroadenomatosis) capillary proliferation, contributing to the emergence of Setzer - nirosha or bleeding disorders. Macroscopically

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211 

Etiology. Special conditions of development malevolently infection, usually Staphylococcus. The pathogenesis. Primary chronic osteomyelitis. Bacterial embolism in the blood vessels of the spongy substance of the metaphysis of the bone (often) gives not a well-developed pictu

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227 

Etiology. The direct mechanical effect of severe injuries, acting in different directions (the kinks, the immediate impact, flattening, twisting). The pathogenesis. The force that exceeds the elasticity of the bone, causing disruption of its integrity. The result: a partial

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505 

Etiology. Random, most often in children or intentional ingestion of strong acids (sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric, acetic acid) and alkalis (caustic soda). The pathogenesis. Acids, alkalis violate the colloidal state of the protoplasm, destroying tissue. Burn acids gives the

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359 

Etiology. Hit staphylococci, streptococci, gangreung of diplococcus, into the lining of the bag. The pathogenesis. The process develops in the standing bags (knee, elbow), and the newly formed periosteal ledges (if clubfoot big toe and other). The infection gets under the di

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300 

Etiology. Often aureus, rarely Streptococcus or the Association of both microbes. Predispose to metabolic disorders (diabetes), exhaustion, low power, beriberi, chronic infections (tuberculosis), diseases of the nervous system. Occurs more frequently in the elderly. Play an imp

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267 

Etiology. Streptococci, staphylococci, putrid infection, anaerobic infections, chemical irritants (calcium chloride, kerosene, and others). The pathogenesis. Diffuse suppurative or putrefactive process in subcutaneous, intermuscular and mejorando tissue, accompanied by necros

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182 

Etiology. The introduction begins in the region of localization of the legs of the polyp, moving through the intestines and pull the connecting intestinal wall, or in the presence of tumor in the bowel wall its contraction, inflammatory infiltrate, spasm, especially during peri

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221 

Etiology. Congenital disorder, rarely secondarily evolved strain. The pathogenesis. The contraction of certain muscle groups, causing deformity of the foot in the position of plantar flexion and rotation inside her.  

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277 

The etiology is unclear. Known for the role of chronic trauma, long brush tension caused by injury or other stimuli. Symmetrical Palmar aponeurosis and the fact that this process occurs not only among manual workers, but also the mental workers, speaks in favor of the existing

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270 

Etiology. Extensive soft tissue defects as the effects of trauma, extensive burns, inflammatory lesions of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, acute and chronic inflammatory processes in muscle. The pathogenesis. In the process of scarring involved first a specific tissue layer,

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328 

Bruised chest occurs when different types of injury is often accompanied by a fracture of the ribs. The main danger is the damage of organs located in the chest cavity. Heart, blood vessels, bronchi with a closed injury damage only rarely. More likely to suffer pleura and lung

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220 

The etiology and pathogenesis are not yet known. In the study cryptorchidism testicles in them can be found in greater or lesser extent of the phenomenon of underdevelopment of the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules, increasing the number of connective tissue. When cryptorc

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238 

Is caused by bacteria penetrating into the cavity of the bladder. In other cases, cystitis occurs due to the presence in the urine of chemical substances (cantharidin, formaldehyde), irritating the mucous membrane of the bladder. The infection can penetrate the top and purulent

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185 

Etiology. There are: traction diverticula formed from the action of thrust from the outside in inflammatory process, most of tuberculosis, lymph node, small size; pulseone from increased pressure inside pressure of the lump of food in a wall section that is not covered longitud

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218 

Acute inflammation of the tunica vaginalis testis usually develops due to inflammation of the epididymis and testis or injury. In the cavity of the shell appears exudate with serous in nature. Chronic inflammation can develop from acute inflammation of the membranes, but is

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197 

Congenital absence of the anterior wall of the bladder (ectopia) - a Vice development, accompanied by the absence of the pubic joint and the lower third of the anterior abdominal wall. At the same time there usually full epispadia with hypoplasia of the genital organs. The reas

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247 

Etiology. Touching or approaching the conductive part when the high-voltage currents, touching uninsulated included in the electrical network of wires, a short circuit close to the victim (Valitova arc, spark). The pathogenesis. The electrical conductivity of the skin depends

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483 

Etiology. Congenital disorder of blood circulation or blockage of the lymph vessels on the grounds of recurrent disease with erysipelas, limfangoita, dermatitis and other tropical and subtropical countries - when the mosquito bites entering larvae filari. The pathogenesis. Pr

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361 

Cm. Hydrops of the gallbladder. When virulent infection after absorption of bile is a secretion of the wall of the bubble of pus, filling his purulent exudate and stretching.  

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202 

Infection, penetrating into the epididymis through the ductus deferens or hematogenous route. Often epididymite are gonorrhoeae or TB, less nonspecific caused by Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and other bacteria. The result of the inflammatory process are formed scars, often pre

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282 

Malformation in which there is underdevelopment of the upper wall of the urethra and its wrong location on the back side of the penis. The degree of underdevelopment of the urethra may be different. There are epispadia the head of the penis and full epispadia, in which the uret

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622 

Underdevelopment of the sphincter during atresia, a violation of his functions after surgery or serious injury, weakness of the sphincter and complete paresis in diseases of the Central nervous system with exhaustion and management of frailty. The disease develops when the viol

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1357 

Etiology. Development in the tissues of the finger of the inflammatory process in the implementation of staphylococci and streptococci. The pathogenesis. A gateway for infection are small finger injuries - skin cracks, burrs, bruises, skin damage with manicure. There are supe

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441 

The etiology is unclear. The pathogenesis. Of benign breast tumors are the most frequent tumors of mixed character: fibroadenoma, less cystadenoma and systemically. The tumor often develops at the age of 20 - 25 years in the outer sector of the gland. Histologically consist

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259 

Fistulas may be congenital, often on the neck and in the umbilicus (irregularity development) and acquired as a result of damage (urine, bile, urine), inflammatory processes (pryamokishechnye ligature, when osteomyelitis and tuberculosis of the bones), when the collapse of the

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281 

The height of the arch of the foot in normal people exposed individual fluctuations, in pathological cases, reaching a maximum flattening down until it touches the inner edge of the foot with the ground. Flatfoot can be congenital; more often it is acquired by weakness snimau

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307 

Foreign bodies fall into the gastrointestinal tract more often if swallowed, when wounded, during operations. Acute foreign body may cause a perforation and subsequent peritonitis. Foreign body of abdominal cavity, trapped in the wound (bullet, shrapnel) or forgotten during sur

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222 

Etiology. Foreign bodies fall into the soft tissue under a variety of conditions, on the war - at gunshot wounds. The pathogenesis. Together with a foreign body in the tissues can get pieces of clothes, shoes, hair, etc. that creates a threat of infection. Foreign body (espe

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210 

Etiology. Are more likely to fall and get stuck in the esophagus acute foreign body (fish and meat bones), voluminous foreign body (dentures), children - coins, small parts of toys. The pathogenesis. Foreign body stuck more often in the beginning of the esophagus behind the c

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170 

Bulky and sharp foreign body in intestine can stop at the sphincter of the rectum. Below are tips from enemas (especially shards of broken glass tip); the accumulation of feces.

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374 

Etiology. Influence of low temperature (below 0 ° , about 0 ° , sometimes even above 0 ° ). Favor: physical factors (humidity, humidity service, the wind, the duration of low temperature), biological (age, anemia, exhaustion, lack of activity, General circulatory disorder, abno

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366 

Etiology. Often develops with a constant mechanical irritation of the wrist joint in typists, pianists, violinists. The pathogenesis. On the back surface of the wrist joint on the Palmar surface in the area of metacarpophalangeal joints and at the interface in the joints cub

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