OBSTETRICS

Obstetrics and gynecology. All pathological and physiological processes that occur in the female body associated with conception and pregnancy, childbirth and after childbirth. Methods developed for childbirth, treatment, and prevention of complications of pregnancy and childbirth diseases of the fetus and newborn.

411 

The etiology and pathogenesis is the same as that at the rear the form of presentation of the fetus, occipital (see). Flat pelvis.  

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328 

A cord prolapse (when the head previa). Etiology and pathogenesis the same as when the loss of small parts of the fetus (see). It should be added excessively long umbilical cord, the introduction of metratester.

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360 

Abortion (miscarriage) - termination of pregnancy before 28 weeks, when the embryo or fetus is not capable of self-uterine life. The etiology is diverse. Of particular importance are the diseases of the mother: inflammatory diseases of female sexual sphere, in particular,

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293 

The infection penetrates into the uterine cavity in the long stay of the cervix in the open state and the presence in the uterus blood clots and parts of the ovum. Sources of infection may be the microbes present in the vagina, nesting in the cervix, the germs from distant foci

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352 

Border anemia during pregnancy can be roughly considered as the amount of hemoglobin 55% and red blood cells - 3.5 million The etiology and pathogenesis of a variety. Often pricinol anemia is polyplasmia blood during pregnancy, caused by uneven increase in the plasma. Anemia

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270 

The etiology and pathogenesis are not known precisely. Brow presentation is often a form of transition to the maximum degree of extension - the fetal presentation face (see).

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597 

Hyperextension - cervical laceration during childbirth, scarring of the cervix, ingrown villous placenta previa, especially in the cervical pregnancy, rapid delivery, operative delivery with insufficient opening of the throat.

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340 

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371 

The etiology and pathogenesis are not yet known. Some value has a long umbilical cord (more than 60 cm). The entanglement of the umbilical cord is around the neck (single or multiple), the trunk or limbs of the fetus. Pregnancy proceeds without complications. Cord entanglement

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318 

The delay in the uterus of a fetus, who died after 28 weeks of intrauterine life. Etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, and recognition for delivery failed similar to that described for missed abortion (see Abortion failed). When failed delivery delay of the fetus for the long te

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239 

DROPSY PREGNANT see Nephropathy, see Abortion (Miscarriage).

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365 

The etiology and pathogenesis are largely the same as with other forms of toxicosis second half of pregnancy edema number (see pregnant Nephropathy).  

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533 

Ectopicoften a tubal pregnancy occurs in cases where there are difficulties in the promotion of a fertilized egg in the uterus (inflammatory processes in pipes and around them, overly long and convoluted tubes at their underdevelopment, myomatous nodes and endometrial growths l

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247 

see Nephropathy pregnant.

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450 

Improper management of labour, excessive pressure on the fundus of the uterus to Kristeller. The squeezing of the placenta by the Vendor without the prior massage of the uterus, stretching the umbilical cord when netdelivery the placenta, the laxity of the muscular walls of the

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328 

The etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown. Facial previa is often combined with a flat pelvis of the mother, congenital goiter, impaired function of the occipito-vertebral articulation in the fetus.  

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367 

Rupture of the vessel during pregnancy or childbirth. Contributes to varicose veins in this area.

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347 

Changes in the pelvis (poperechnosuzhenny basin, other forms of narrowing of the pelvis), the sudden discharge of water when the head pressed against the entrance to the pelvis with an arrow-shaped seam, located in the direct size of the entrance to the pelvis.

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3273 

Hypotonia of the uterus, hypotonic bleeding - lowering ability of the muscles of the uterus to contract, leading to insufficient clamping of the vessels of the uterus and as a result to bleeding in succession and the postpartum period. Causes of hypotonic condition of the ute

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304 

Jaundice during pregnancy can be a symptom of severe toxicity (vomiting of pregnancy, eclampsia), in some cases parenchymatous hepatitis (Botkin's disease) or cholecystitis. Very rarely jaundice of pregnancy is a kind of toxicosis with degenerative lesions of the liver parenchy

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252 

see PREGNANT NEPHROPATHY.

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304 

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353 

Narrow pelvis, running transverse position, improper management of labor, attempts of delivery in breech presentation and insufficient opening of the birth canal, roughly conducted a vaginal examination and other undue interference from the act of giving birth. The cause of con

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298 

Narrowed in the transverse size of the output (funnel) of the pelvis; the weakness of the pelvic floor, the fruit of small size.  

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285 

Toxemia of pregnancy.

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415 

Violations of the process of formation of the placenta, resulting in the umbilical cord completely or partially attached to the fetal membranes.

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302 

Missed miscarriage - the death of the ovum, is not accompanied by release it from the uterine cavity. Etiology and pathogenesis is not clear. Known value may be small irritability of the uterus-dependent changes in the activity of the Central nervous system and hormonal reaso

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1343 

Taken to distinguish between: anatomically narrowed pelviswhen one or more of its dimensions 2 cm less relevant generally accepted average size of the pelvis, functionally narrow pelvis, in which the size and capacity of the pelvis is not reduced, but difficulties aris

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375 

Etiology and pathogenesis is not known. Is a complication of pregnancy (toxemia), associated with pregnancy and usually disappearing after her.  

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349 

Etiology and pathogenesis are not completely understood. Breech presentation is often observed in preterm births, twins tumors of the uterus, polyhydramnios and dry season, hydrocephalus. One of the reasons for nastavlenia head in the pelvis can be no jerky movements from the l

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258 

Cm. The delay of the placenta.

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367 

Atypical location of the placenta in the lower uterine segment or region of the internal OS. The etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. Of great importance are inflammatory diseases of the uterus, repeated intrauterine interventions (scraping, manual separation of the p

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663 

The delay in the uterus of placental remnants when abortion or childbirth and enveloping their blood clots.

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305 

The etiology and pathogenesis of polyhydramnios during pregnancy are not known. Known value has increased function of the epithelium of the amnion.

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241 

see pregnant Nephropathy.

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295 

The etiology and pathogenesis are not yet known. More often twins. There are identical twins - fertilization of one egg cell and daizie - fertilization of two egg cells from the same or different follicles, in turn, located in one or both ovaries.

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324 

Overdue pregnancy - pregnancy, the duration of which exceeds 280 days from the first day of last menstruation. Etiology and pathogenesis are unknown, because I don't know the cause of occurrence of the birth. Known value may have dysfunction of the Central nervous system and

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508 

Hypertension, nephritis, nephropathy during pregnancy, eclampsia, trauma, short umbilical cord, the dense shell.

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413 

To preterm birth include all births from 29 to 38 weeks of gestation , inclusive. Etiology and pathogenesis. Acute and chronic infection of the pregnant flu, lobar pneumonia, malaria, chronic nephritis, hypertension, polyhydramnios, multiple pregnancy, pregnant nephropathy, t

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311 

Toxemia first half of pregnancy with impaired function of the nervous system.

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422 

Inflammation in the renal pelvis and upper ureter. Called Escherichia coli, often in combination with staph and other flora. The emergence of pyelitis pregnant help: hypotension ureters, their expansion, elongation and the formation of corners and curvatures on separate sec

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309 

The etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown. There is approximately 1% of births with head previa, more often multiparous with relaxed pelvic floor, in the second position.

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563 

Irrational management of labor, the rigidity of tissue, a large fetus.

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597 

Birth trauma, mainly in nulliparous.

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275 

see the Abortion failed.

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305 

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403 

Etiology and pathogenesis the same as with placenta previa (see Placenta previa).

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348 

Long (over 2 hours) after birth, the fetal stay of the placenta in the uterus. Etiology and pathogenesis. In addition to hypotension uterus (see), the reason for the delay of the placenta are: improper conduct post-partum period (abdominal massage of the skin and uterus,

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367 

Defeat fleecy shell of the ovum with the transformation of the latter into a conglomerate of small bubbles of various sizes. Etiology and pathogenesis is not known. The observed molar significant increase in placental gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the tissues and urine of

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345 

The loss of small parts of the fetus (if the head previa). The small size of the fetus, multiple pregnancy, high water, high above the entrance to the pelvis movable head, a narrow pelvis. There are previa, when small parts are located immediately above the unopened shells me

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