Or why skin cancer came in first place among cancer
"The sun, air and water are our best friends, remember this is a popular 20 years ago expression? Indeed, until recently these natural disasters people were actively improved. But now with the sun you cannot joke: in recent decades ultraviolet rays have become much more harmful. This is acknowledged by leading experts that it is the ultraviolet called main cause of skin cancer and melanoma. Because of him for 10 years among all anabolizma skin cancer from the 3rd moved into first place in the world. Dermatologists say: sunburn in childhood increases the risk of developing melanoma and lovers of the sun in adults can lead to skin cancer. So how in the summer, in the hottest months of the year, to behave with the sun, so as not to endanger themselves, we asked the chief freelance dermatologist Ministry of health of Ukraine Alexander LITUS.
ULTRAVIOLET - THE MAIN ENEMY OF THE SKIN
- What's the situation with the incidence of skin cancer among Ukrainians? - Official world disappointing statistics: annual number of cases of skin cancer in the world, as in the Ukraine increases from 3 to 7%. The situation is quite threatening, as in the last year in Ukraine was diagnosed with about 10 thousand of non-melanoma skin cancers, about 3 thousand melanoma. Approximately one thousand patients, unfortunately, died. In the world such a trend is: the earlier we diagnose skin cancer, the more likely that person will be healed and live. And than later we find melanoma and other types of skin cancer, the greater the risk that the person will die. - Why skin cancer came in first place environments anabolizma? - The main culprit of tumors on the skin is really ultraviolet. Due to the fact that the sun has now become more active, the ozone layer is thinner, added other factors as not quite clean water, poor nutrition, hormones, chemical emissions and so on, the number of patients with skin cancer began to increase. Now we often go out in the outdoor clothing, long're in the sun, and it is harmful.
DO NOT MAKE YOURSELF "CHERNOBYL DISASTER"
- Who first exposed to danger in the future to have skin cancer? There are 4 basic types of skin. Lightest 1 and 2. Among our population is dominated by 2-nd type. This is one of the most risky relative to skin cancer. Because, the lighter the skin, the less it melanin, the less it has a protective capabilities from ultraviolet radiation. Blonde same is risk group number 1. What is the sun? This is a way to protect our body from ultraviolet radiation. He begins to produce the pigment melanin to harmful rays do not fall into deep skin layers and our internal organs. We purposely substituted body under the sun. It's like to go, for example, under the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to get a bit of the radiation exposure would be stimulated for a few hours and took years of life.
DO NOT PAY YEARS OF LIFE FOR A FEW MONTHS TAN
- How many years of life can "steal" the man who systematically tans? - I want to give expression Catherine Deneuve is a remarkable phrase for which she should thank all the doctors: "I am not ready to pay two years of his life to two months to be tanned." Bronze tone to skin became fashionable recently. It was an initiative of Coco Chanel before valued aristocratic pallor. In our time-repeatedly made attempts to restore the fashion for white skin, and dermatologists all countries that support unconditionally.
HOW TO MAKE THE STAY SAFE
But summer is the time of holidays and recreation. Now many bring children for recreation on the sea, in the mountains, where particularly active ultraviolet. You may not want to do that? - You need to relax. The question is how to do it. Children under one year, and it is better to three, generally do not want to be in the sun. So baby organisms evolved healthy, they have enough of those sunlight they receive during a short walk. In addition, kids need to dress in a shirt of cotton long-sleeved necessarily in hats with large fields, before going out to lubricate the exposed areas of the body sunscreen. After all, children skin is thin, and therefore very sensitive to the sun. And another note: if you are taking the kids on holiday in the mountain, it is even more dangerous than the sea, because there they can get a big dose of ultraviolet radiation. The fact that earth's atmosphere is a natural filter, which reduces the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface. Accordingly, the higher up the mountain, the this layer is thinner and more ultraviolet light falls on the body. Another important point, we get ultraviolet not only from direct sunlight, but when it reflects water, asphalt and other shiny coating is an additional dose, which can reach 40% in the number obtained directly from the sun.
IT IS IMPORTANT NOT TO MISS THE FIRST WARNING SIGNS
- How increases the threat of anabolizma in people who have had recurrent skin burns and skin then even took refuge specific dark spots-freckles? - If you have an old neoplasms, moles, they must be checked by a dermatologist, do dermatoscopy to identify what it is. If they appeared for the first time or in a person after the sun burns, stains on the skin, I would advise you also to consult a dermatologist to be checked and avoid possible risks. First of all, we should pay attention to moles, increasing in size, change color and shape. In General, skin cancer is characterized by the following features: non-healing wounds; areas where the skin is peeling and coarsens; red and brown spots on skin; any suspicious lesions. This disease has a latent period of from 20 to 30 years, which means that occurrence of tumors can be associated with what you did or what life had told 20-30 years ago. - How long does a skin burn may turn into cancer and what areas of the body, it is most often manifested? - On skin areas that are most open and most often get the sun. Where and how is is quite individually, as melanoma can occur on any part of the body: from the retina to the heel. About 70% of cases are affected individuals, 5-10% - a cancer that grows on the limbs and trunk. It depends on the genetic status of a person, from the large number of factors conducive to change, so people should know all of your moles and to watch them, not they grow and change color and shape.
IN FRONT OF THE BEACH, GO TO THE DERMATOLOGIST
- But sometimes we want to go to the beach to swim. How best to protect themselves from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation? - Sunbathing is not necessary, but if we do this, there is the approach developed by the European Association of dermatologists. In particular, children under 3 years sunbathing undesirable. If you go to the beach, it is better to do it before 10 a.m. and after 17 PM. Then the sun becomes not so aggressive, because the ultraviolet light is at an angle, and therefore, he has to go over a thick atmospheric layer. And maximally protect the body - wear clothes with long sleeves, use cancerprotective creams. I would not advise to buy them on the layouts. Dermatologists divide all creams into 3 parts: those that can be bought in the supermarket used by dermatologists, and those that sold in pharmacies, they have a higher degree of proof that really protects. My recommendation: buy sunscreen in medical facilities. Tells you which ones to choose, and will be a guarantee that there really is a sunscreen effect, not just advertising on the package. And people, who are sure that you want to sunbathe, I would advise to go to the dermatologist and test the sensitivity to the sun, i.e. what is the minimum dose causes them solar irradiation (each dose of its own), and then you would know that redness you need to be in the sun a minute or 5 minutes and it will help to avoid burns.
THE SUN ACCELERATES THE AGING PROCESS
- Is it true that the sun helps photoaging of the skin? - It is. The ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin, collagen breaks framework - one that uderzhivaet our skin young, prevents wrinkles. And the more ultraviolet light, the more this framework is broken and the skin is flabby, appear dark spots, wrinkles, dark color is the signs of photoaging. If on the shoulders have freckles, age spots, an increasing number of moles, this means that the mechanism of photoaging started. - A good example of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has been shown in one of the American TV programs. They put on a few months empty plastic bottle of drink so that half of it was in the sun, and the other is in shadow. The experiment showed that the part that fell direct sunlight, was completely damaged, something similar happens with our skin. Therefore, in order to preserve your youth and health, protect her from ultraviolet radiation. Besides, in my opinion, white skin is always in fashion as a way of freshness, health and cleanliness. The conversation led
THE TEST FOR SELF-DIAGNOSIS
Those who have moles, you need to be especially careful - solar radiation can cause their malignant degeneration. However, this does not mean that the mole should be plastered is strictly prohibited. And here to check the status of moles before the Sunny season and after it, especially if it seemed suspicious to you. There is a simple test called "accord", using which, you may make an initial self-test. And - asymmetry moles To - jagged edge About - change the color of the P - increasing amount of E - dynamics of changes, occurrence of cracks, crusts, bleeding, ulceration. If at least 2 parameters moles changed, it is better to consult a dermatologist. The more that there are modern methods of optical diagnostics of detecting early transformation of a mole - dermatoscopy. A special device - a Dermatoscope, without damaging the structure of moles, can examine patients, risk group, 1-2 times a year. If the body is "covered" moles, it is better to create a so-called map of the skin using a special camera its surface shoot 8 projections, then the special computer program measures the size, area of all moles, defines their characteristics, and with the re-examination after a certain period of time captures the smallest changes are imperceptible to the naked eye.
TO WHOM IS CONTRAINDICATED SOLA
Active Heliotreatment, and the more tan contraindicated in hypertensive illness, ischemic illness of heart, thyroid disease, disorders of the adrenal glands, systemic lupus, the propensity to bleeding, menstrual period, in the presence of mastitis, myoma of the uterus during pregnancy. In people with impaired liver sun may occur urticaria. In addition, there is such a thing as an Allergy to sunlight.
Valentina BRONICA, Svetlana TERNOVAYA.