THE SYSTEM DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM : THE INTESTINAL PARASITES, HELMINTHES (HELMINTHIASIS) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
The immediate cause worm disease is a parasitic infestation. Depending on the nature and characteristics of parasitic worms painful manifestations may be different. Famous role in this respect also plays a reactivity of an organism. Of the greatest importance to man are the following groups of parasites:
1) tapeworms (cestodes); tapeworm pork, or armed (taenia, solium); tapeworm bullish, or naked (Taenia-rhynchus saginatus); wide lentets (Diphyllobothrium latum), hydatid cyst (Echinococcus granulosus); dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis dad);
2) flukes (trematodes): the liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), or Siberian cat Fluke (Opisthorchis felineus); 3) round worms (nematodes): Ascaris, strunz (Ascaris lumbricoides), the vermiform pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis), vlasoglav or Lastovka (Trichocephalus trichiurus), Ancylostoma duodenal (Ankylostoma duo - denale), prize intestinal (Strongyloides stercoralis), trichina (Trichi nella spiralis), Necator americanus.
The pathogenesis is reduced to mechanical and toxic effects, and to reflex effects on other organs and systems, which is determined by the clinical picture helminthic diseases, and sometimes to the introduction of infection.
Symptoms. The feeling of sucking in the epigastric region on an empty stomach, disappearing after a meal. Nausea and profuse salivation. Appetite in some cases large, in others, on the contrary, disappears. But with a good appetite ill patients recover. Often there is itching in the anus, around the genitals and on the tip of the nose. From the gut - cramping abdominal pain with discharge gas, constipation with cramps separate parts of the intestines, sometimes diarrhea. Along with this, the reported symptoms from the nervous system: children become irritable, whining, start to have trouble sleeping, and sometimes seizures and epileptiform seizures. In adults, there are dizziness, spasms in the throat, bouts of dry cough, eosinophilia and anaemia. In excrements found the eggs of worms.
Course and complications. The course depends on the nature of the parasite and its features. The most frequent complications: colitis, enterocolitis, gastritis, anemia, appendicularia, intestinal obstruction, cholecystitis, perforation of the intestinal wall.
Recognition on the basis of patient complaints and objective data can only be conjectural. The diagnosis is decided on the basis of the detected eggs or segments of the worms in the stool.
The prediction is favorable, but the expulsion of parasites is not always immediately possible, and often have to resort to re-exile.
Prevention is different, depending on the nature of the parasite:
Of great importance in the fight against worms have measures of social prevention. They set out in the relevant regulations of the Ministry of health.