So we feel healthy, every system in our body responsibly perform their duties, supporting others. One of the tireless workers endocrine system. With the help of chemical substances, called hormones, she runs a different body functions, such as growth, sexual development, the exchange of nutrients, and the body's reaction to stress. Its main bodies, the so-called glands of internal secretion, and endocrine glands: the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, Shestopalova gland, pancreas, ovaries in women and the testes in men, hypothalamus and the pituitary gland (located in the brain and regulate the operation of these endocrine glands). Each of these bodies deserves special attention. Today we learn that meet the adrenal glands. What diseases can cause in their work? As these diseases treated? What should be the prevention?
FOR THAT ANSWER HORMONES
It is believed that the main function of the adrenal glands - adaptation to stress factors in the environment. They immediately react when you are nervous, worried, worried different shocks, help you cope with difficulties, and despite everything to live and work further. They also perform other functions. The adrenal glands are located above the upper pole of the kidney. They consist of cortical and brain layers that differ in structure and hormones. Cortical layer produces most of hormones, which are divided into three groups: 1) mineralocorticoids involved in the regulation of mineral and water exchange; 2) glukokortikoida, mainly affecting carbohydrate metabolism, suppress the inflammatory response; 3) sex hormones that affect sexual development. Cerebral layer produces adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulating the work of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. All diseases of the adrenal glands in one way or another associated with excess or lack of hormones. The main hormone of the first group - aldosterone. A significant increase in its level occurs when tumors or adrenal hyperplasia. Reduced concentration is observed in the destruction of tissue of the adrenal glands. The main hormone of the second group - cortisol. Its concentration is reduced when the disease Addison, chronic adrenal insufficiency. High - syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga (redundant function of hormones napochechnikov crust), adenoma and cancer of the adrenal glands. The third group includes the male sex hormones (androgens) and female (estrogen and progesterone. Improving the education of these hormones in childhood leads to early sexual development, and low - to delayed. In adults excessive level (which mostly occurs by tumors of the adrenal gland) can cause feminization of men (the development of female secondary sex characteristics: reduce growth of beard and moustache, fat waist), atrophy (loss of functions of the testicles, etc. and masculinization women (the accumulation of secondary sexual characteristics males: adult person, muscle growth, change of voice, and so on). Adrenaline produced cerebral layer, increases blood pressure, narrow vessels, accelerates the heart rate, slowing intestinal motility, increases the concentration of glucose in the blood, increases the arrival of a blood fatty acids, increase cholesterol level, affects the cells of the immune system. In healthy people, the level of adrenaline in the blood increases with emotional stress, physical exertion. A significant increase in its concentration in the blood and urine occurs when the tumor cerebral napochechnikov layer. Norepinephrine affects metabolism like adrenaline, but less pronounced.
FROM INFECTION TO STRESS
Cause stress and, consequently, disease or failure of the adrenal glands chronic or acute infections (influenza, bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), traumatic brain injury, the metastatic cells of malignant tumors of the sick organs, prolonged use of hormonal therapy. In case of overload and stress (conflicts in the family, at work, death of relatives, accident, serious illness) is released into the blood excessive amount of adrenaline and if not there is a restoration (after initial anxiety reactions body needs 48-hour recovery), the condition worsens, fatigue, lethargy, the desire to rest. If the stress lasts a long time (months or years), then, notwithstanding the ability of these patient endocrine glands "adapt" and to resist such States, and their capabilities are limited. Fatigue and deterioration of the General condition becomes chronic, in such cases, patients go to the doctor with symptoms of hypoadrenia (exhaustion of the adrenal glands). The main symptoms when "fatigue" of the adrenal glands and systems adaptation: prolonged headache, weakness, weight gain or weight loss, whitish webs on the skin, increased blood pressure, insomnia. Problems with the adrenal glands can cause infertility and hypertension. To determine the level of adrenal hormones will help laboratory tests of blood and urine. Changes in the structure of this body can be seen through ultrasonic scanning and computed tomography.
TUMOR, WHICH SHOULD NOT BE AFRAID
Sometimes an ultrasound or computed tomography people find tumors of the adrenal small size. Of course, having heard of this, patients begin to sound the alarm, fearing that this is the beginning of a dangerous disease (cancer). But continuous observations have proved that with such seemingly unnatural "growths" you can live a long time and feel good. Just need to keep in mind: safe for health tumors are considered to 4 cm, not producing any hormones (inactive tumors) and not increasing with time. It is desirable to carry out the re-examination and shall be under the supervision of an endocrinologist. If no change occurs, the grounds for excitement not, live, as usual. If the tumor grows in size, be sure to consult an endocrinologist, which will study the history of the disease and prescribe the necessary treatment. Why there are tumors? My personal point of view that this is a consequence of stressful situations, which we cannot avoid. We are worried about the tragic situations happening to us, relatives, close people, suffer from diseases, their complications. These tumors can be compared with scars on the heartthat remains after surgery. He does not disappear, but you can live to a ripe old age.
THE GRADUAL RECOVERY OF FUNCTIONS
The main goal of treatment of the adrenal glands is to restore normal hormone levels, and eliminate negative factor that triggered the development of the disease. If it's a tumor, it is removed surgically. When the disease Addison (when not enough of the hormone cortisol, which regulates fat metabolism that affect the state of vessels, pressure), if it is moderate and severe stages of the disease, a person has until the end of life to take hormonal drugs (corticosteroids). One tablet of cortisone or hydrocortisone times a day normalizes hormone levels - and man is no different from the others. If it is mild stage, then you can do without taking medication. Just add a diet ordinary table salt (if this disease is not enough salt so its amount should be increased) and take vitamin C. it is Also desirable to avoid sleepless nights and extreme changes in temperature. When emotional experiences, accidents, serious injuries, infections, severe birth stress for the body to be excessive. Then may experience acute adrenal insufficiency, there is bleeding into the adrenal glands. This state can be called "heart of the adrenal glands, and it requires immediate assistance as life-threatening. In such cases, the hormones that are missing injected into a vein. Important in the successful treatment of pathologies of the adrenal glands and prevention has a diet rich in plant foods, especially rich in vitamins (black currant, potatoes, beets, cabbage, lemons, oranges and walnuts), sour-dairy food (kefir, cottage cheese, milk, meat dishes from gentle grades of meat (rabbit, chicken, veal, boiled or steamed, which contributes to the normalization of carbohydrate, protein and fat exchange and improvement of the General condition. Healing effect on the body moderate exercise, morning exercises, light Jogging and walking in the fresh air, because saturate the blood vessels oxygen and strengthen the nervous system. Very useful swimming, as harmoniously load all the muscles of our body and healthier cardiovascular system. Pleasant communication with friends, relatives - the perfect remedy for stress. We can't live without emotion and excitement, diseases and mental tests, but to control these States need, if want the adrenal glands "serve" us long and reliable.