Certainly, not only me, surprise and admire people who live 80 years and more, while retaining activity, commitment and positive attitude to life. Meeting them, involuntarily "charged" their optimism. When calling such readers, share experiences, about something ask, thank you for the advice, I usually wrong, guessing their age, taking 10-20 years. And they lament or laugh: "Oh, I am so much more." Really? And the voices, like the young, and the attitude to what is happening around not indifferent, but full of sincere interest and desire to be needed to keep fit and to help others. How do they do it? What is the secret of youth and longevity? On this and many other conversation with the doctor of biological Sciences, chief research associate of the state institution "Institute of gerontology of AMS of Ukraine Natalia PROKOPENKO.

SANGUINE PERSON - AHEAD

- Natalia Alekseevna, we often ask ourselves the question: why are some people already in 50 years they get the "bouquet" of disease, and others - and over 80 are fast asleep and can't sit still? It is the will of fate, accidental or logical? - All people get older we are, and are long-lived, but in different ways. Much depends on the living conditions, nutrition, physical activity. As for longevity, they in the first place is the genetic factor, i.e. the ability to live longer than the others inherited. Such people are by nature hardy, healthy, not rancorous, did not focus on the problems, or try not to pay attention to them, or to solve it. To the question - is it easy to sleep, whether you suffer from insomnia? most respond that they have a good sound sleep. If we consider long-livers from the point of view of temperaments (sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic, they are sanguine, with splashes of phlegmatic. In sanguine strong balanced type of nervous system, they are good at controlling the expression of their feelings and actions, soberly assess external reality, easy to get used to the new requirements and conditions, energetic, take pleasure from life. Phlegmatic friendly, reasonable, prudent, when the big trouble remain calm, serious about making decisions. There is such a fun example that shows the difference between the four temperaments. On a bench sits people and places near the hat. Perfect passer-by and accidentally falls directly on the hat. If sitting - hot-headed, he will be angry, and swear, if - melancholic, you can cry if - phlegmatic, wait until he stand if sanguine - laugh and even just a joke.

INTERNAL RESOURCE - AGAINST DIFFICULTIES

- Can we say that these long - lived cheerful optimistic. - But they are also people with inner core. I remember one episode, which told the daughter is false. It was during the famine. Mother prepared potatoes and strictly ordered the children to sit down and eat. Herself went to the door and watched carefully to all ate. "Mommy, but do you want?" - naively asked little brother. "No," answered firmly woman and not moved from the place. "Now I see what she's really like to eat, " recalled daughter, " but for us suffered famine. Knew that the only way to help their children. She has lived for more than 90 years". That is genetically does natural selection. Some die and others bravely endure the difficulties survive and remain human beings. Inside the body there are such vital resources that even a very difficult test for them not harmful. They pass through this line and continue to live and develop.

RISK FACTORS

- It happens that people, whom God has given many years, for various reasons, are unable to take care of themselves in old age. - It is really so. After all, the aim is not to live long, it is important that life was long and of high quality. Abroad for this purpose conditions are created (necessary medical care, service clubs, correction of physical activity after retirement). We, unfortunately, different, basically all depends on the person. However, as I mentioned, long-livers "inherited", transfer and bad ecology, and modest food, and inadequate medical care, remaining mostly, active and cheerful. Ordinary people often themselves shorten life. Our Institute conducted research to identify the causes that affect the aging process. The results are as follows. In men, the first place is harmful habits (Smoking and alcohol, but especially Smoking, because it affects not only the cardiovascular system and digestive and other systems of the body, hence premature mortality among men), the following risk factors - nutrition, insufficient physical activity, working conditions, living area. Women in the first place - the nature of power, followed - financial situation, housing conditions, physical activity, and also territory of residence.

HOW NOT TO EAT

- For men and for women at the beginning of the list of causes of premature aging is the nature of power. ToAK don't need to eat in order to stay young? - Tell about it, referring to the results of another study conducted by the laboratory of hygiene of labour last year at three enterprises of Kiev. We talked with people older than 50 years. To determine the level of functionality of the body. Special attention was paid and nutrition. Immediately striking that almost all the surveyed body mass index (BMI) was higher than that recommended by the world health organization. To measure body mass index can any person. To do this, your weight (body weight) should be divided by height in meters squared. If a BMI of less than 20 - you are exhausted, power reserve is not enough. If BMI exceeds 27, it is a sign of obesity, which is known to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Remember that diseases of the circulatory system are on the first place among the reasons of death of our population. When we started to measure caloric intake, it turned out that most food is not up to standards. For men who are not engaged in intensive physical labour, daily norm - 2,300-2,500 calories for women - 2000-2100. In addition, it is not balanced. Such important for building protein foods like fish, cheese, sour-dairy products, meat, eggs, subjects eaten in very small quantities. Preferred cereals, potatoes, pasta, bread-bulochny products, fat. Through them and gained excessive weight. Also most of them did not follow the diet, instead of 3 meals a day, in the best case ate 2 times a day. The main meal for men was in the evening time, women - in dining. What kind of life expectancy can be discussed if the diet that attitude! Of course, now is the time that not everyone can afford to diversify the diet. But make sure at least that is on the table were salads (from carrots, beet, cabbage), if there are no contraindications, fruits, at least sometimes buy lean meat, dairy products. It's your contribution to your health and longevity.

EXERCISES WITH GYMNASTIC STICK

- The second factor, which coincided in men and women, - insufficient physical activity. Perhaps You advice on what do the exercises in order to strengthen the body's life force. - There is an excellent set of exercises with meter gymnastic stick, developed by specialists of our Institute. These exercises are useful for people of different age, they have a positive effect on the muscles, joints, spine. Stick helps gently, without too much stress to capture traffic on certain parts of the body, to include in the work different muscle groups. Perform each exercise slowly, without jerks, by 8-10 times. The first exercise. Get a stick by the edges with both hands and get her head, not bending the trunk. Then, returning to the starting position, stop at chest level. The second exercise. Holding the stick by the edges and pull the left hand-side (right hand, bent at the elbow, pulling after him), slightly pressing the stick to the body. Then pull the right hand side (left stretches followed). The third exercise. (Especially useful for the spine). Place the stick between the bent elbows behind his back. Head and shoulders - not displaced. Turn the trunk right-to-left. The fourth exercise. Holding the stick behind his back, holding her up and down, massaging the lower back. Listen to your feelings, do not press too hard. The fifth exercise. For the knee joints. Sit on a chair. One end of the stick place below the knee right leg, and the other end is put on the left leg. Bend and unbend the right leg. After that, place the stick under the knee left foot and do the same for her. The sixth exercise. For palms. Sit on a chair. The stick - on my knees. Alternately first inner and then the outside of the palms of both hands slide back and forth on the stick, so massaging them. Seventh exercise. Runs without a stick. Become smooth and raise your hands up, placing her hands inside the ceiling. Straining your body, reach up, if you want to support the ceiling.

LEARN TO LOVE LIFE

- Many people probably would like to live a long, active and happy. For this purpose, in addition to the above advice, it would be good to "Wake up" in itself sanguine. How to do it? - Usually temperament begins from birth and to change it is impossible. But, nevertheless, to learn to take life positively, to love, respect and understand themselves and others. Engage in self-education, option will. Start small. Even in a bad try to find something good (it could be much worse) and highlight it (do not enter into the problem). Remember: any difficult situation can be solved, but sometimes it takes time. Do not take hasty decisions and not be too categorical. Remember the well-known truth: how do you treat people, and people will treat you. If you are offended, do not blame all the offender, try to understand it, think about why he committed such an act, maybe your wrong behavior caused it. Looking for a middle ground, do to be good to you and to the people who live nearby. This is the recipe mental and physical longevity.

Lyudmila BEZVERKHNY,