or ABOUT the PROBLEMS of LONGEVITY FROM the point of VIEW of MODERN SCIENCE
Humanity has always sought to find an awesome way of extending active longevity. Is it possible to "contain" the inexorable time? What are the main conditions for a long and happy life? What experience has been elaborated with us and abroad? On this and many other conversation with the Deputy Director on scientific work, head of the laboratory of regulation of the metabolism of the "Institute of gerontology of AMS of Ukraine, doctor of medical Sciences, Professor Oleg KULCHITSKY.
90-120 years of age - SPECIFIC LIFE EXPECTANCY
- Over the past decade gerontology, exploring the mechanisms of aging and studying factors that this process will slow down or speed up, is rapidly developing. Born new hypotheses and models. Have you found the response to the global issue of our time: why does the human body grows old? Ageing is an evolutionary mechanism that is inherent in human nature. In the so-called biology of aging has accumulated a lot of literature, there are more than 300 hypothesis of aging, but one universal, which would set everything in its place, is still there. Proven unequivocally that each kind of animal species has its lifetime (that is, a certain period of time from birth to death). For rats is 36 months, to rabbit - 5-6 years for dogs 25-27 years for cats - 20 years. Large mammals (elephants, giraffes, rhinos, hippos), which takes a lot of time on pregnancy (elephants, for example, pregnancy lasts 22 months), on the feeding and education of offspring to the rules of conduct among similar, live up to 50 years. Apes (chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, gibony) live up to 50-55 years (but not in the wild and in the reserve, designated reservations). Oh man, there is no consensus. It is believed that the species life expectancy ranges from 90 to 120 years. If people live longer (over 130 years) is the exception to the rule.
THE AGING PROCESS OPPOSE THE ANTI-AGING PROCESSES
- What theory of aging most fully explain what's happening with age? - The main component of all research: the age of cells, tissues, organs and systems of the organism gradually lose their functions, they agreed to "work" is broken (some agencies work better than others), and if there is no balance (equilibrium) inside the body, it loses its power, that is, health, and aging. Some scientists believe that this is due to disajustment genetic apparatus and the breakdown of DNA (which contains all the information about our body and regulates its work). Others - that the reason is in excess of free radicals, that is active forms of oxygen that are synthesized mainly in the mitochondria, the energy factories of cells). If very aggressive free radical accidentally leaves the place where he is needed, he can damage DNA, proteins, and fats. An interesting model of aging of our compatriot, a prominent physiologist and gerontologist Century Frolkis, my teacher, which he offered in the 60-70-ies of the last century. He argued that the developmental age and length of life are determined by the balance of two processes: along with the destructive process of aging (which, in particular, is the development of diseases of various body systems) acts the process of aging, for which he proposed the term "without" (vita - life, auctum - increase), the "work" of the body, are aimed at increasing life expectancy. This "work" is carried out, if the person consciously support the forces, cultivating positive thinking and confessing a healthy lifestyle.
THE SECRET TO A LONG LIFE FROM THE "PEOPLES OF CENTENARIANS"
Modern people live much longer than their ancestors. And this trend shows no sign of slowing, and increases. As explains the science? - Now the first place in the world for life expectancy went Scandinavians, even ahead of the Japanese. Women Scandinavian countries on average live 82-83 years, and men - 79, it very much. The secret of their longevity has 3 basis. Firstly, a balanced diet that includes a large number of marine fish (it contains omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which protect the cardiovascular system, enhance brain and nervous tissue, the retina of the eye, help to cope with inflammatory diseases), dairy products (contain calcium, phosphorus, and other nutrients necessary for bone system), vegetables (spinach, cabbage, various salads - they are rich in antioxidants, vitamins, which remove free radicals from the body). Secondly, good ecology (clean air, minimum industrial emissions into the environment). Third, socio-economic security (they do not think about how to feed themselves or family tomorrow). Contrast this against Cuba. It is not very rich in a totalitarian country (in some regions all only for cards, others money can buy everything), but life expectancy are quite high. One of the reasons is the attention to children and the elderly from the state. Free milk, and other products they receive in the first place. In their time by scientists of the Institute of gerontology studied centenarians Abkhazia and came to these conclusions about the nature of the phenomenon. First, the positive role of mountain air, it reduced oxygen levels (this trains cardiovascular system), secondly, - the power (rarely eat meat, mostly dairy products), third, active movement. Very important fourth factor - the respect for elders (aksakals), listen to them, consulted.
FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF WORK WITH ELDERLY PEOPLE
- You have focused on respect for elders. How does this affect the life extension? - If older people feel that nobody needs, they have lost interest in life. Loneliness is a stress for the organism, which violates the cells and destroys the body. When they see its usefulness, they have vitality, the desire to do something. This emphasize abroad. For example, in Brussels once a week for older people organize discos. Americans adults who know the life of people, experienced) evenings gather for fellowship. They don't complain that somebody is ill, and speak about life, books, movies, television shows, they together interesting. I was at one of these meetings in new York. This positive attitude to life, which increases the emotional sphere, and thus improves the function of the Central nervous system. In Japan wonderful preventive medicine. There for a nominal charge to any person at any time to make ultrasonic, "gulp" the probe, to conduct a diagnostic study of high class. In addition, they have a very good home for the elderly. Comfortable rooms, a wide corridor, individually designed treatment and diet. On the walls of the corridors caused three lines (blue, red and yellow), each of which indicates a certain direction: to doctors, to the dining room, recreation room.
THREE IMPORTANT ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF PHYSICAL CULTURE
- What other factors influence the health status and life expectancy are important? - In addition to the above factors, an important part of active longevity are correctly organized physical education classes. In this respect, I always say: every individual must find a physical activity for themselves (taking into account the peculiarities of the organism) and the most important - without fanaticism. Criterion - pulse and, preferably blood pressure before physical activity and after. If the pulse (normal should be from 60 to 80 beats per minute) after load twice rose, and in a minute and a half have returned to normal, then the load is transferred well. If higher or later return to normal, then the load is excessive. If the pulse was restored, but a backache or knees, then we need to take a break or to think about how to modify the exercises (for example, able to bend, but not to squat). Physical activity affect our body in three directions. First, improve circulation, strengthen the heart, vessels, the Central nervous system. The second is soft stress that exhausting, and stimulates the nervous system, helps produce hormones of pleasure endorphins. Third - brings a feeling of vivacity and health. At the end of the conversation will remind wise saying that touches and longevity: "o my Lord, give me strength to change what I can, give me the patience and courage to accept what cannot change, and grant me the wisdom to distinguish the first from the second." There are mechanisms, is in our nature that we do not depend. But keeping a positive attitude to life, everyone will be able to extend their longevity, and then the new year and every day will be happy and desired.