care for the newborn : CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEWBORN BABY
The first four weeks after birth are called neonatal period. At this time the adaptation of the organism to the environment. From the moment of birth begins a significant change in metabolism, change the function of individual organs and systems. Pulmonary respiration is established, uterine circulation, begin to function the digestive system, you receive self-regulation, changes of morphological and physico-chemical properties of blood.
The main functions of the body are in a state of unstable equilibrium, which can easily be broken. Some physiological processes pass into the pathological. A newborn adjusts to the world with an immature nervous system and lack of immunological reactions. Therefore, this period is considered as critical.
A sign of donoshennosti child is the pregnancy of his mother, which lasted 38-40 weeks. Indicators of physical development of the newborn depends on many factors: the health of the mother, her nutrition, pregnancy, sex of the child. Therefore, the mass and the length of its body have wide borders: from 2500 to 4000 grams (about 3200 g) and from 45 to 58-60 cm (average 52 cm). Head circumference (34-36 cm) is slightly bigger than the circumference of the chest (32-34 cm).
Features for newborns there is the concept of maturity. Mature full-term baby cries loudly, actively sucking, retains heat well. It produces active movement, has pronounced muscle tone. A well-defined physiological sucking and swallowing reflexes, hand-mouth reflex of Babkin (with pressure on the palm of the child opens his mouth), grasping reflex Robinson (if you put your finger in the palm of the hand, he clings to it), reflex crawling phenomenon or Bauer (in the prone position the child is moving to crawling), the automatic walking reflex (child shifts from one foot to the other, if you hold it in a vertical position) and others.