DISEASE OF BODIES OF BLOOD CIRCULATION : EMBOLISM (EMBOLIA) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
Кровеносная система, сердце, сосуды, кровь
Embolism - detached pieces of clot trapped in the bloodstream fat droplets, bubbles of air or other gas, finally separate pieces of fabric (most often the cells of the sprouting vessel tumors), moving with the flow of blood can cause clogging of the vessel with the subsequent phenomena of circulatory disorders in the corresponding plot.
The spread of emboli correspond to the flow of blood; an exception are the rare cases of retrograde embolism observed in the inferior Vena cava and its branches in case of insufficiency of the tricuspid valve, and a pronounced venous stasis.
The most common type of embolism - thrombus particles, which can be unlocked in early education or in the subsequent softening (and sometimes septic). Fat gets in the bloodstream more often in severe injuries, especially accompanied by fracture of the long bones, rarely in the surgery (fat embolism). Air can enter at wounds and the operations damaged a major vein in the power of negative pressure (suction) or injected into the venous system of blood transfusions and intravenous injections with defects of technology infusion (air embolism).
As a rare complication of air (gas - nitrogen) embolism is possible with the imposition of artificial pneumothorax and manufacture of special investigations (newmore, pneumoperitoneum), and when the needle is in Vienna.
Cell-tissue embolism (tumor cells) is observed, as a rule, in the lymphatic vessels, and significantly less in the blood.
Embolism of lymphatic vessels does not lead to significant disorders of lymph (the abundance of collaterals) and if it has practical value, except in the sense of metastasis.
The symptoms of embolism are very diverse and depend on the size of the vessel plugged, and the importance of the body they supply. Common to all bodies is developed, the suddenness of disorders of blood circulation with full or partial loss of organ function. Embolism of the large arteries of the extremities characterized by sudden sharp pains in the limbs, with disappearance of the pulse in the downstream Department, blanching, and later some cyanotic extremities, cold and sensory disturbances. When pulmonary embolism suddenly occurring stabbing pain in the chest, shortness of breath, cyanosis, a drop in heart rate.
With good circulation and a well-developed collateral circulation may recover completely. In debilitated patients with poor cardiac activity the ability to restore blood circulation is negligible. When blockage of the large arteries of vital organs (brain vessels, coronary artery, pulmonary artery) can occur sudden death. When blockage of blood vessels in the limbs if the collateral circulation is insufficient, there is gangrene. When blockage of the septic clot, if I don't get the heavy consequences of disorders of blood circulation, the risk of developing metastatic abscess is very high.
The sudden appearance of the above symptoms suggests embolism.
Forecast embolism is always questionable.
If you are able to accurately localize the blockage of the vessel available for surgical intervention, early (10 hours) removal of embolus with subsequent vascular suture can give a good result (the vessels of the extremities, in some cases, pulmonary artery). Later (on the extremities), bilateral ligature and arteriectomy contribute to the development of collateral circulation. Of the conservative measures applied at rest and by all means, improves circulation (limb - position warming).