VENEREAL DISEASE : SYPHILIS (SYPHILIS) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
The causative agent of syphilis - Treponema pallidum Saudia-Hoffmann (1905). Outside the body it dies when dried; in a wet environment, the corpses of Treponema pallidum for a long time retains pathogenicity; the literature describes cases of occupational infection at autopsy.
Source of the spread of syphilis is a sore. The disease is transmitted by direct close contact with the patient is healthy, for example, during sexual intercourse, kissing or through objects contaminated with secretions containing pale spirochetes (household syphilis).
For. It is well known that the course of syphilis is characterized by a diversity of clinical forms that therapeutic intervention gives various degrees of success in different patients, and how different is the outcome of the disease. While in some cases it is possible quickly to cure syphilis, even when in theory this had little chance, there are cases when treatment is begun in time and correctly carried out, if the conditions for success, does not bring the desired result. All this is due to the condition of the nervous system of the patient, his ability to reflexively respond to the introduction of pale spirochetes using neuro-receptor mechanisms. Nervous system, which is the dominant regulatory mechanism, has the lead role in the occurrence, course and outcome of the pathological process. As one of many proofs you can refer to the pilot study, persuasive in neuro-reflex origin antibodies, reduction of reactivity under the influence of a protective inhibition in conditions of sleep.
The time from infection to onset of the first symptom of the disease syphilis is called the first incubation period. This period lasts 3 weeks, rarely less, sometimes slightly more. At the site of introduction spirochetes appears first symptom of the disease - chancre (ulcus durum), which quickly joins the enlargement of regional lymph nodes is associated bubo (Adenitis syphilitica). With the appearance of the chancre occurs, the primary period of syphilis, or primary syphilis (syphilis I). In the beginning of this period of seroreactive even negative, due to which he is called seronegative primary syphilis (syphilis I seronegativa). For seronegativity primary syphilis usually, only the form in which invariably remain steadfastly negative results of seroreactive produced regularly at least once per decade throughout the course of treatment. Further, after 3 to 4 weeks after appearance of the chancre, seroreactive is positive; then talk about the seropositive primary syphilis (syphilis I seropositiva). The primary period of syphilis, both as a so-called second incubation period, lasts an average of 45 days. During this time all increase lymph nodes (polyadenitis syphilitica), patients often complain of malaise, headaches, there is low-grade temperature. Soon comes the spirochaetal sepsis, manifested a variety of rashes on the skin and mucous membranes; begins the secondary stage of syphilis (syphilis II recens). In this period the disease usually affects all organs, including the nervous and skeletal system. Clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis may eventually even without treatment disappear without a trace. This period of apparent health is called secondary latent syphilis (syphilis II latens). If treatment is not carried out or is not carried out carefully, some time later, comes the return of the disease - the appearance of the rash characteristic of the secondary period of syphilis - secondary recurrent syphilis (syphilis II recidiva), followed again comes the latent period. With each relapse, the number of elements of the rash usually becomes more and more scarce.
After 5 to 6 years, and sometimes later secondary period of syphilis tertiary replaced. All manifestations of the disease in this period as skin, and other tissues and various organs are devastating; more superficial in the skin bumps (syphilis III tuberculosa), and how deep the nodes that extend from subcutaneous tissue - Gumma (syphilis III gummosa), after healing leave lasting scars. In the tertiary period of syphilis, and in the secondary, rash (syphilis manifesta III) followed by periods of latent course of the disease (syphilis III latens).
Time begun and carefully treated in the first period of the disease prevents the development of secondary syphilis. The same can be said of patients who started treatment in the secondary period of the disease. With proper treatment the patient is not only guaranteed for late manifestations of syphilis, but recovers completely.
In the case of a new infection, the diseased again, repeat all stages of syphilis, from chancre (reinfectio).
It should be borne in mind cases malignant course of infection, when the phenomenon of secondary syphilis characterized by their high severity (pustular rash) or when come early manifestations of tertiary syphilis (syphilis maligna).