DISEASES OF THE SKIN : NAIL DISEASE OR ONYCHIA (ONYCHIAE) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
The etiology and pathogenesis are diverse. Nail disease can be due to the introduction of fungus, is the causative agent of ringworm (cm), scab (cm), and tinea rubrofitia (see Tinea) and yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida (Montilia) (see Paronychia and onychia yeast). Along with onychomycosisuncommon diseases of the nails fungous-free nature.
Symptoms. The most frequently observed secondary changes of the nail plate associated with eczema of the hands and fingers. When distributing eczematous process on the rear and the lateral ridges on the nail plate transverse furrows appear, since its inception, and in the rapid flow of eczema of the nail can dramatically deformed to lose transparency (so-called eczema of the nails); in such cases there may be a pattern resembling yeast onehey or nail trichophytosis.
Should be guided by the presence of foci of eczema (see) on the fingers or anamnestic indications patients on past outbreaks of eczema in this area; microscopic examination of scrapings finally decides the issue. The nail plate may undergo the changes described above in the presence of purulent paronychia, felon.
Quite often so-called nail dystrophy. To this group belong the changes of the nail plate observed in a number of dermatoses, for example, when cusichaca psoriasis (see Psoriasis), lichen planus, congenital bullosa (see). This includes lesions of the nailsthat occurs without any effects in the skin of the nail folds. In the pathogenesis of these dystrophies may play a role:
In such cases, the nail plates often appear transverse furrows, and sometimes longitudinal, quite often form the point of deepening like psoriasis of the nails. The lengthy existence of trophic disorders disc sometimes thickens, becomes corteously character, reminiscent of onychogryphosis (see); in some cases it even becomes uneven, rough and dull, acquiring gryaznosery color.
In recognition of trophic diseases of the nails should be borne in mind that unlike onychomycosis:
Treatment primarily of the disease underlying the nail lesions. Restorative nail treatment. The preparations of arsenic. Vitamin a in large doses (5 to 10 drops of the concentrate of vitamin A, 2 times a day). Hot baths for the fingers daily, massage the fingers and hand. Diathermy cervical sympathetic ganglia.