DISEASES OF THE NOSE, THROAT AND NASOPHARYNX : - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention



What is the THE NASAL BLEEDING (EPISTAXIS) and how it is treated?


Etiology and pathogenesis THE NASAL BLEEDING (EPISTAXIS)

Common causes of nosebleeds:

  1. infectious diseases - typhus, diphtheria, measles, the flu;
  2. diseases of blood-forming organs - aleukia, leukemia, pernicious anemia, scurvy, etc.;
  3. heart disease and blood vessels (valve disease and arteriosclerosis);
  4. chronic diseases of liver and kidneys (nephritis, cirrhosis of the liver).

Local causes of nosebleeds: picking your nose with your finger, injury, fall, blow to the nose; in fractures of the anterior cranial fossa, in addition to bleeding, there is leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. The most frequent site of bleeding - the front part of the nasal septum.


To stop bleeding , the patient should sit with the prisoners neck, with his head slightly tilted forward; the feet should put a heating pad on the bridge of the nose is icy cold lotions. When rhinoscopy should find bleeding site, put it on cotton wool and cauterizing the bleeding site with chromic acid. When failure - front tamponade, in case of need and back. For back tamponade, except soft rubber catheter, it is necessary to prepare gauze round shaped tampon the size of a walnut. The tampon needs to be bandaged so that he had three long filaments free. A soft catheter is inserted through the lower nasal during in the nasopharynx; end it in the nasopharynx is grasped with forceps and removed through the mouth. To lead the end to tie two threads, then when pulling up the nose end of the catheter through the nose and he pulls the two strands of the swab. The swab is carried out through the mouth to the back of the throat, use your finger to push in the nasopharynx, the pad tightly clog joanou. After that, produce a front tamponade the corresponding half of the nose, and both threads are tied outside to a thick gauze roller. The third strand dangling from his mouth, fixed on the cheek of the patient adhesive plaster. Thread this is needed to extract the swab from the nasopharynx. When bleeding from the nose , you should always investigate the blood and urine. Inside designate 10% calcium chloride to 3 tablespoons a day, vitamin K 0,015 3 to 4 times a day, intravenous injection of a 10% solution of calcium chloride In 10 ml. of further blood transfusions 150 - 250 ml.