MENTAL ILLNESS : MENTAL RETARDATION (OLIGOPHRENIA) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
The delayed development of the embryo of the fruit in the acute infection, intoxication, trauma, as well as in connection with endocrine disorders.
Mental retardation symptoms. On the background of the General underdevelopment of the whole body more or less severe hypoplasia of the psyche, especially the mental sphere (depending on the degree of dementia, there are idiocy, imbecile and debilnosti). From the somatics frequent anomalies in the structure and form of individual parts that are grouped under the name of degenerative signs (cleft palate, cleft lip, polydactyly), impairment of motor functions, deficiencies on the part of the speech.
For. Mental retardation, starting from birth or early childhood, continues until the end of life. It is based on the failure of the nervous system or persistent remnants of the early process of scars, napusteni. Neither anatomically nor clinically notes of progression. The mentally deficient easy to give reactions to trauma in the form of Psychotrauma.
When separated from other diseases, giving the symptoms of mental deficiency, should especially be based on the fact that mental retardation is stationary, does not detect the progression manifests itself in early childhood and is accompanied in most cases by somatic phenomena of failure. Important to distinguish patients with mild mental retardation from normal people with low intelligence. In the latter case, when appropriate pedagogical and cultural impact children line belonging to them and take a place among the normally developed peers.
Dementia as such almost defies successful therapeutic treatment. With mental retardation on the basis of syphilis should try out a specific treatment; endocrine mental retardation indicated by a treatment with organic preparations. In some cases, mental retardation possible surgical treatment. Dropsy of the removal of the fluid gives though not stable, but still favorable results. Sometimes the interference is vitally shown as an abrupt increase in intracranial pressure may result in very severe symptoms. Further, in cases where there are indications of constant irritation of the brain, resulting in the observed epileptiform seizures, Jacksonian epilepsy and other hyperkinesias, shown trepanation with the removal of scars, tumors, cysts. Very important have preventive, therapeutic and educational events in childhood, further employment regime. These measures prevent the evasion of patients with mental retardation in the direction of antisocial. Education and training of mentally retarded require creating an enabling environment, use techniques that are appropriate for their level of development. In more severe cases (idiocy and severe imbecility) the task of education is limited to the discipline of the patient, comes to the teaching the basic skills, neatness, ability to dress, etc. that to a certain extent, facilitates care. Yet the helplessness of the individual patients is so great that required placing them in special institutions. Much more difficult is the training and education blurred expressed the mentally deficient - morons. Under favorable conditions, such a mentally deficient after teaching in the secondary schools can continue to lead a normal working life. When choosing a career, you must consider the mental and physical strength of the patient, and it is, of course, about the simplest forms of labor.