DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM : - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention



What is the PAIN. PAIN PHANTOM. THE HEADACHE. The MIGRAINE. and how it is treated?


Etiology and pathogenesis PAIN. PAIN PHANTOM. THE HEADACHE. The MIGRAINE.

Pain is a symptom of diseases of different organs and systems. A variety of pain syndromes requires a more precise localization of the lesion, which occurs pain. It should proceed from the basic peripheral and Central anatomical structures, in which the pain occurs and is perceived. These include:

  1. the pain receptors in the skin, muscles, joints, bones and internal organs;
  2. peripheral sensitive nerve;
  3. rear Spine;
  4. the rear pillars and lateral Spino-thalamic path;
  5. eye mound and bark.

Based on the localization of the lesion in these departments pathway pain allocate peripheral and Central pain. From practically important pain syndromes should be emphasized paroxysmal pain in neuralgia, headaches, localized and persistent pain with sciatica and polyradiculoneuritis, shooting pain in the spinal the "dryness", pain when organic diseases (tumors, meningitis, encephalitis), pain in functional diseases (neurasthenia, hysteria). Often there are pain at the injury of peripheral nerves. In the analysis of pain syndromes must be borne in mind that the patient may experience pain and away from the fire causing the problem. These are the radiating pain in injuries of peripheral nerves, different kind of pain (viscerally) diseases of internal organs, repercussive pain when sympatethic, hyperpathia.

Pain phantom. A special kind of pain is phantom pain, observed in amputated. When this syndrome is pain felt in the non-existent parts of antiromance limbs. All that was associated with pain before the amputation, patients experienced as something real; it indicates real to him existing pain brush, feet, separate fingers. Pain can be very strong, sometimes having the character of causalgia (see). These pains are the result of peripheral irritation of the stump scars or neuroma, but can occur because of the views of the patient imprinted in their brain. As with causalgia, assume that in the pathogenesis of painful phantom is set to the visual excitement of the hill and irritation of the sympathetic nervous system.

Headache (cephalgia) is observed as an isolated symptom or in combination with effects such as vomiting, dizziness, visual disturbances, etc., Headaches can occur at a certain time of day (for example, night pain of siphilitica) or year (spring pain with malaria, endocrine diseases, periodic migraine pain arising, for example, during menstruation).

Headaches occur when autointoxication, chronic and acute infections, hypertension and arteriosclerosis, functional suffering and some psychoses, for example, in schizophrenia; marked symptomatic headaches when organic diseases of the Central nervous system, random headaches for injuries, sudden stress, the lumbar punctures. Common form of headache is the migraine.

Migraine (haemicrania). Attacks of migraine pain often begin at an early age. The disease is the disorder vasomotor functions of the brain.Sometimes migraine occurs due to anaphylactic (allergic) conditions. May play a role poisoning. Migraine attacks, in addition to headaches, mostly characterized by vomiting, sometimes transient visual impairments, aphasia. Migraines are equivalent: transient vomiting, dizziness, false angina. These symptoms can precede a migraine attack, which often occurs in the form of attacks of greater or lesser duration. For migraine is characterized by localized pain in one half of the head.

Some organic disease can occur under similar with migraine picture of the disease, such as tumors, syphilis, dropsy of the brain.


If there are complaints on headache should be set as precisely as possible the cause. It is necessary to make a thorough clinical examination (somatic, neurological). It is very important retinoscopy, neuroretinal with hypertension, congestive nipples when the tumor or abscess, atrophy of the optic nerves in syphilis, neuritis when opticoncept, arachnoiditis. In some cases, the required puncture with cerebrospinal fluid examination and radiography of the skull.


The treatment of pain syndromes requires correcting the root cause that is causing the pain. In certain pain syndromes, when pain relievers do not help, have to resort to surgery. This is especially true for neuralgia, causalgia and phantom pain. When syphilis headache is eliminated specific treatment; malaria good effect quinine; anemia - high-calorie diet and proper mode of work and rest. Migraines used piramidon in combination with caffeine and phenacetin. Long-term treatment require migraine pain. In addition to symptomatic treatment, has a value of diet therapy. If the violation mineral and protein metabolism helps salt-free and malamalama diet. First give vegetarian food, then a few raw egg yolks, liver, cheese, brains - to 100 g per week. Recommended vegetables and fruits. Sometimes effective is the ketogenic diet. Patients receive per day for 15 - 20 grams of carbohydrates, 25 to 30 g of protein and 180 grams of fat. You can stick to this diet for a long time. If you suspect a endocrinopathy treat diseases of the endocrine glands. When migraine is often effective systematic course (3 - 4 weeks) pyramidology therapy. When blood vessels spasm, hot compresses help, migraine spastic vessels - cold compresses on the head. With persistent headaches favorable effect of ingestion of Valerian zinc. For headaches traumatic origin give a good effect of intravenous infusion of glucose solution.

Soviet authors experience beneficial effect on pain syndromes therapy long sleep (methodology, see Mental illness).

When headaches are successfully used various physiotherapeutic procedures: franklinization, darsonvalization head, plated collar by Shcherbakov.

As well as medication.