DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM : APHASIA (APHASIA) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
Aphasia is a disorder of speech if the damage is higher speech centres in the cortex of the left hemisphere of the brain ("cortical centers").
Symptoms. With the defeat of the motor speech center, located in the rear part of the lower (third) of the frontal gyrus, developing motor, or motor, aphasiain which the patient understands speech addressed to him, but to possess it can't. When this peripheral speech apparatus (the movement of the lips, tongue, vocal cords) in contrast to dysarthria (see) is saved, but the patient can not use it because of the defeat coordinating speech center. With the defeat of sensory speech center, located in the posterior part of the upper (first) temporal gyrus, develops sensory aphasiain which the patient can speak, but understands addressed to him speech. There are still a third form - the amnestic aphasia, in which patients have retained the ability to spontaneous speech and understanding, but he can't immediately name objects or to answer questions, and makes it after him resemble the name of the item. This form of afasy occurs with lesions of the left parietal region. In the various forms of aphasia may be a disorder of the letter - agraphia and reading disorder - Alexis; more often it is observed at the amnestic aphasia. Agraphia, Alexia and disorder bill - acalculia can meet and independently with lesions in the left parietal lobe. In accordance with the teachings of the higher nervous activity of Acad. I. P. Pavlov connects it with the development of the second signal system, which he defines as follows: "the Word was a second, specially our signal system actually being a signal of the first signals. Impressions, feelings, and views from the surrounding environment as ovsepiani, social, excluding the word, visible and audible, Acad. I. P. Pavlov calls the first signal system actually. From the point of view of the teaching Academy. I. P. Pavlov on conditioned reflexes in the basis of speech disorders in aphasia are disorders of the second signal system.
Aphasia occurs in a variety of brain diseases that affect the speech centers. Most often it is observed in vascular disorders (the defeat of the left middle cerebral artery) arteriosclerosis, hypertensive or specific nature, tumors, encephalitis, meningitis. Often aphasia occurs when gunshot wounds of the brain with the above localization. With limited vascular lesions it may occur as an isolated symptom. The aphasia should be distinguished from psychogenic disorders of speech Aphonia (see), and Mutism (see), stuttering (see) and some congenital defects of speech.
Treatment depending on the underlying suffering. Patients are systematically teach speech. The experience of the Soviet researchers have shown great possibilities of regenerative therapy of aphasia when properly organized treatment suffering from aphasia in special institutions and private groups, which creates favorable for the treatment of the defect environment.