DISEASES OF CHILDHOOD : ATRESIA, ATROPHY (ATREPSIA, ATROPHIA) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
Etiology: a) nutritional factor - quantitative and qualitative starvation, repeated and prolonged indigestion, persistent regurgitation and vomiting; b) infectious factor - chronic, acute enteral and parenteral infection.
The pathogenesis. Deep depression all enzymatic processes and intermediario exchange.
Symptoms. A sharp depletion (subcutaneous layer disappears even on the face), seravatiani skin, bright color of oral mucosa and lips; hypertension or sudden muscle atrophy; flatulence; anxiety, tendency to hypothermia: often vomiting and regurgitation; chair diarrhoea, soap and lime, sometimes constipation.
For. Usually develops gradually, lasts long. Even when properly administered treatment improvement comes slowly and often interrupted by a new deterioration.
Toxic dyspepsia, pneumonia, pielet and pyoderma.
Recognition is easy; practically, it is important to identify the etiological factor.
Treatment is common, depending on the etiological factor. The basis of treatment is proper nutrition. Diet therapy: in the most severe cases and in children during the first months of life breast milk; to start with 200 - 300 g / day and, gently increasing the quantity to raise the coefficient of caloric to 160 - 180. After the weight of the child will cease to fall, it should be much diet depending on the cause of the eating disorder. When underfeeding more or less safely transfer of the child to the General for his age diet; monotonous milk feeding to enrich food carbohydrates (mixture of Dub, cereal, buttermilk flour, and 10% sugar), with monotonous carbohydrate, on the contrary, proteins. When dyspepsia (see), regurgitation (see), vomiting (see) to eliminate them. In most cases, it is advisable to assign a concentrated mixture to increase calories without adding much volume of food. Total daily calorie intake should be closer to the calories of a normal child of that age, i.e., the coefficient of caloric value should be calculated not on the actual weight of the child, and the weight that he would have to have at this age. It is not always possible due to the reduced endurance to food. Due to significant disruptions intermedial exchange shows stimulating therapy. In cases of athrepsia with undetermined etiology it should start even with very severe forms easily tolerated hemotherapy (5 - 15 ml of blood intramuscularly every day or every other day), in the milder cases - serotherapy and proteinuria (see Hipocresia). Good effect, especially in children older than 5 to 6 months, give insulin therapy (2 to 5 units a day while the introduction of reg OS 10 - 15 grams of simple or grape sugar). Injection kampolona 0.5 - 1 ml daily or every other day. Massage with a gradual transition to gymnastics. Inside pepsin hydrochloric acid, Pancreatin. To monitor cardiac activity. Meticulous care, eliminating the harmful effects of hospitalization and increase the emotional tone of a child.