SURGICAL DISEASES, TRAUMATOLOGY, ORTHOPEDICS, UROLOGY : CYSTITIS (BLADDER INFLAMMATION) (CYSTITIS) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
Is caused by bacteria penetrating into the cavity of the bladder. In other cases, cystitis occurs due to the presence in the urine of chemical substances (cantharidin, formaldehyde), irritating the mucous membrane of the bladder. The infection can penetrate the top and purulent processes in the kidneys and bottom (bottom path) in diseases of the urinary tract and female genital organs. Often cystitis is caused by the introduction into the bladder catheters and other instruments. Even when sterile instruments, the infection will be entered into the bladder through the urethra, where there are always (especially in women) microorganisms. However, despite frequent penetration of infection into the bladder, cystitis does not always occur. For its occurrence have is conducive factors: trauma to the mucosa of the bladder with the introduction of tools, urine retention in the bladder, stones, tumors, diverticula of the bladder, sudden cooling of the pelvis, inflammatory processes in the female genital organs, constipation. The process can be involved, the entire bladder mucosa (General anesthetic) or just part of it, most often the neck area (cervical cystitis bladder). In some cystitis observed hemorrhages, hemorrhages in the mucosa (hemorrhagic cystitis). Death of renal epithelial and rejection lead to the formation of ulcers (ulcerative cystitis).
The transition of the inflammatory process from the mucous membrane on the muscular part of the bubble causes a more severe and prolonged course of the disease. A more severe form of the disease is cellulitis of the bladder wall with the formation of abscess. The latter can penetrate into the surrounding tissue and cause inflammation (parasitic). Cystitis is characterized by pain during urination, frequent urination and pus in the urine. Increased pain at the end of the instrument depends on the contraction of the sphincter and squeeze them numerous nerve endings embedded in the neck area. Frequent urination depends on the impossibility of stretching of the bladder wall due to loss of its elasticity. Especially pronounced these symptoms of acute cystitis. Acute cystitis usually end up recovery a few days even without treatment. If they become chronic or if cystitis from the very beginning has a chronic course, it always depends on the constant stream of pus from the kidney, the presence of a tumor, stone, bladder diverticulum, hypertrophy of the prostate, tuberculosis of the urinary system. Primary chronic cystitis is relatively rare and is caused by certain microbes.
Recognition of acute cystitis easy. More difficult is the elucidation of the etiology of chronic cystitis. By bacteriological examination of the urine reveals the type of microbe. The absence of any flora should raise suspicion for TB disease of the bladder. The most important for the diagnosis of cystitis is cystoscopy.
Acute cystitis is assigned to drink plenty of water (to reduce the concentration of urine and washing products of inflammation), light diet; inside streptocid or sulfidina 0.5 four times a day. To soothe pain and tenesmus using candles with belladonna, General and sedentary bath temperature 35-37° for 10 minutes, penicillin.
If the above treatments do not provide sufficient effect, it is necessary to apply local treatment: infusion (instillation) into the bladder through a thin catheter with 5 ml of 2% solution of the colloid. If the urine after several installations remains muddy pass to the bladder washings solutions oxycyanide mercury (1:5 000-6 000), solutions of silver nitrate (1:3 000 - 5 000) or rivanol (1:1 000). In addition, apply sulfanilamide and penicillinate and non-irritating diet. If this treatment does not result follows by cystoscopy to determine the cause of supporting cystitis, and take appropriate treatment.