SURGICAL DISEASES, TRAUMATOLOGY, ORTHOPEDICS, UROLOGY : ASPHYXIA (АSРНУХIА) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
Cessation of gas exchange in the lungs and blood develops mechanical barrier to oxygen in the lungs: foreign body larynx and pharynx, tumors that compress the windpipe, bronchi and larynx, inflammation of the larynx (edema), injury to the larynx and so on, when the lack of oxygen in the surrounding air and excess carbon dioxide in the dysfunction of the respiratory muscles, in violation of the functions of the respiratory centre (increased intracranial pressure, intoxication, and others), failure of tissue respiration (intoxication by carbon monoxide, etc.).
Symptoms. Respiratory disorders of various degrees, increased his or ischemia, the deepening of the respiratory movements involving auxiliary muscles, noisy whistling breath, indrawing of the intercostal spaces, supraclavicular fossae hypogastric regions and costal arches (especially in children). Zianoticnae different degrees or pale grey colour of the skin. Slow pulse, followed by its increase and decrease cardiac activity. Agitation and restless condition of the patient results in a loss of consciousness.
For. Asphyxia, depending on its causes, develops suddenly, sometimes attacks or gradually and has a different flow. In its development it is possible to distinguish four stages: first, the breathing becomes more frequent and deep, sick, forcing the breath; then comes a spasm of respiratory muscles, and then other muscles, and breathing stops; in the third stage of convulsions are made weaker, the pupils become dilated; in the fourth stage there may be a separate deep sighs, and comes to stop activity of the heart.
Detection is difficult when intoxication; often difficult and etiological diagnosis is extremely important for appropriate action.
First aid should be the elimination of obstructions in the respiratory tract (removal of foreign bodies using a bronchoscope). If you cannot broncho-esophagoscopy and severe condition of the patient - urgent tracheotomy. In inflammatory processes (laryngeal edema) and slower disease progression - hot mustard foot bath (2 tablespoons mustard in a bucket of water temperature of 40º), mustard to Ikram. The lack of oxygen in the surrounding air, making the patient to fresh air and inhalation of oxygen, in the presence in the air of harmful gases (carbon monoxide) - remove the patient from the harmful atmosphere. Intoxication and impaired function of the respiratory center to fight intoxication, the use of inhaling carbon dioxide. A sharp weakening and cessation of breathing is used, depending on the case, one of the methods of artificial respiration (see). The most convenient application quickening breathing apparatus (OKA).