SURGICAL DISEASES, TRAUMATOLOGY, ORTHOPEDICS, UROLOGY : ANKYLOSIS (ANKYLOSIS) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
Etiology. Termination of joint movement develops as a result of injury (bleeding into the joint, injury to joints, intra-articular fractures), acute or chronic inflammatory process (purulent and gonorrhoeae inflammation, tuberculosis joint), as well as during prolonged immobility of the joint in a cast.
The pathogenesis. Due to injury or inflammatory process can cause the destruction of articular cartilage and epiphyses brush with subsequent fusion of the articular surfaces. Stiffness in the joint, due to Spania articular ends (ankylosis), may be the result of the fibrous Spania, allowing a slight movement in the joint, and cartilage and bone fusion. Limited mobility and stiffness in the joints, depending on the changes of soft tissues, see Contractures.
Symptoms. Stiffness in the joint, functional disorders, especially when the vicious position in the joint (lameness, limiting the use of the limb, pain under load and movements).
Proper treatment of fractures and joint inflammation: a physiological position, early loading, movement, massage, mechanotherapy; to avoid applying plaster bandages for a long time. Especially important is the installation of joints in their injury and inflammation in the correct position. The correct positions for the shoulder joint position leads to a right angle, the elbow is bent at a right angle to the wrist is a small rear extension, to the hip - extension with a small lead, for knee - position extension, ankle - position of the foot at a right angle and position of the horse's foot in a shortened limb.
When fibrous ankylosis - physio-mechanotherapy, when the bone ankylosis - arthroplasty to restore movement in the joint and osteotomy for correction of malposition of the limb when the ankylosis in the perverse position. Operative treatment is indicated only after a significant period of time (from 6 months to 1 year) after the acute inflammatory process in the joint. The ankylosis as a result of tuberculosis of the joints are subject operation (resection arthroplasty) only when a vicious position in the joint.