DISEASE OF THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS : DIABETES INSIPIDUS (DIABETES INSIPIDUS) - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and course of, recognition, prediction and prevention
The disease depends on the lesion of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and interstitial brain that regulate water-salt metabolism. Dysfunction of the individual parts of this system or communication between them leads to metabolic water and salts between tissues and blood, causing a shift in the osmotic regulation of the blood. Severely affected the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine, has increased allocation of water renal epithelium, leading to severe polyuria, which is the main manifestation of the disease, while enhanced thirst is a result of excess water excretion from the body. The cause of diabetes most often are of various infectious diseases (encephalitis, syphilis, particularly syphilis basal meningitis, diphtheria, typhus, malaria, scarlet fever and other) tumors of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and interstitial brain, syphilis and sclerotic lesion of the brain, violating his food. There is a definite link diabetes with various diseases of the Central nervous system. Hysteria, epilepsy, and various mental illnesses are often accompanied by the symptom of diabetes. Etiological significance may also have a skull injury and emotional experiences.
Symptoms. Strong constant thirst and polyuria. The number of daily urine varies between 3 and 40 liters of Urine has a low specific bore (1001 1 003). Pathological components in urine no. Appetite is usually not elevated. Dry skin, reducing the separation of saliva and sweat. Weakness, depressed mood, poor sleep, often sexual impotence. From internal organs of special and there are no complications.
The recognition. To distinguish the disease from polyuria in diabetes mellitus it is easy, as the last urine has a high specific weight and contains sugar. Observed in some individuals the habit of drinking large quantities of fluid can lead to false or symptomatic diabetes insipidus. To identify the last performed test with giving the patient the morning of 10 g of salt. In true diabetes insipidus the amount of urine and its share in taking this amount of salt is almost not changed, with false diabetes, on the contrary, the amount of urine decreases, and the weight of it is increased to 1020 and above. Patients with diabetes insipidus transfer this sample to work, while feeling suffering from false diabetes insipidus does not deteriorate.